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Claremont Topology Seminar: Konstantinos Varvarezos (UCLA)
October 31 @ 3:00 pm - 4:00 pm
Title: Cosmetic Surgeries on Knots and Heegaard Floer Homology
Abstract: A common method of constructing 3-manifolds is via Dehn surgery on knots. A pair of surgeries on a knot is called purely cosmetic if the resulting 3-manifolds are homeomorphic as oriented manifolds, whereas it is said to be chirally cosmetic if they result in homeomorphic manifolds with opposite orientations. An outstanding conjecture predicts that no nontrivial knots admit any purely cosmetic surgeries. We apply certain obstructions from Heegaard Floer homology to show that (nontrivial) knots which arise as the closure of a 3-stranded braid do not admit any purely cosmetic surgeries. Furthermore, we find new obstructions to the existence of chirally cosmetic surgeries coming from Heegaard Floer homology; in particular, we make use of immersed curve formulations of knot Floer homology and the corresponding surgery formula. Combining these with other obstructions involving finite type invariants, we completely classify chirally cosmetic surgeries on odd alternating pretzel knots. Moreover, we rule out cosmetic surgeries for L-space knots along slopes with opposite signs.